Gac Fruit Overview (Momordica cochinchinensis)

aka: Fak Khaao

Lycopene is a highly effective carotenoid & one of the most powerful antioxidants on earth.

Medicinal and Nutritional Uses

Traditionally, Fak Khaao (Momordica cochinchinensis 'Qua Gac fruit powder) has been used as both food and medicine in the (southeast Asian) regions in which it grows. Other than the use of its fruit and leaves for special Vietnamese culinary dishes, Qua Gac is also used for its medicinal and nutritional properties.

In Vietnam, the seed membranes are used to aid in the relief of dry eyes, as well as to promote healthy vision. Similarly, in traditional Chinese medicine the seeds of Fak Khaao (Momordica cochinchinensis 'Qua Gac fruit powder), known in Mandarin Chinese as mùbiezi are employed for a variety of internal and external purposes. Recently, attention is being to be attracted to it in the west, because chemical analysis of the fruit suggests it has high concentrations of several important phytonutrients. Today the wild Vietnamese vines are grown abundantly, andit is grown successfully in north Thailand in controlled chemical free vineyards.

· The fruit contains by far the highest content of beta-carotene of any known fruit or vegetable.
· Research has confirmed that the beta-carotene (vitamin A) in the fruit is highly bioavailable.

In a double-blind study with 185 children, some were given a dish containing 3.5 mg beta-carotene from western name of spiny bitter gourd, while others were given an identical-looking dish containing 5 mg beta-carotene powder. After 30 days, the former group eating natural beta-carotene had significantly greater plasma (blood) levels of beta-carotene than the latter with synthetic beta-carotene.[1] This oil also included high levels of vitamin E.[2] The fatty acids in the aril[3] are important for the absorption of fat-soluble nutrients, including carotenoids, in a diet typically low in fat. Thus, Momordica 'Qua Gac' provides an acceptable source of high levels of valuable antioxidants that have good bioavailability. Also, vitamin A is excellent for skin and vision.

· Due to its high content of vitamin A (beta-carotene) and lycopene, the fruit is often sold as a food   supplement.

Care should be given that the freeze dried version of the fresh fruit powder remain sealed from the (air) environment to increase shelf life and should be refrigerated after opening packages manufactured by Siam Natural. Those companies manufacturing and selling large quantities of the raw dried fruit powder are simply disregarding the proper care and preservation of the vital phytonutrients contained in the freeze dried fruit powder.

Chemical constituents

Fak Khaao (Momordica cochinchinensis 'Qua Gac fruit powder) has been shown to be especially high in lycopene content. Relative to mass, it contains up to 70 times the amount of lycopene found in tomatoes.[4] It has also been found to contain up to 10 times the amount of beta-carotene of carrots or sweet potatoes.[4] Additionally, the carotenoids present in gac are bound to long-chain fatty acids, resulting in what is claimed to be a more bioavailable form.[1] There has also been recent research that suggests that Momordica 'Qua Gac' contains a protein that may inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells.[5]


Notes:
a b Vuong, Thuy-Le (October 2003). "Gac: a Fruit from Heaven". Retrieved on March 10, 2007.
Kuhnlein HV (November 2004). "Karat, pulque, and gac: three shining stars in the traditional food galaxy".
Nutr. Rev. 62 (11): 439–42. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2004.tb00015.x. PMID 15622716.
a b Burke DS, Smidt CR, Vuong LT (2005). "Momordica Cochinchinensis, Rosa Roxburghii, Wolfberry, and Sea Buckthorn —
Highly nutritional fruits supported by tradition and science". Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research 3 (4): 259–266.
a b Ishida BK, Turner C, Chapman MH, McKeon TA (January 2004). "Fatty acid and carotenoid composition of gac
(Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) fruit". J. Agric. Food Chem. 52 (2): 274–9. doi:10.1021/jf030616i. PMID 14733508.
Tien PG, Kayama F, Konishi F, et al. (April 2005). "Inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis by water extract of
Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng)". Int. J. Oncol. 26 (4): 881–9. PMID 15753981
.


Absorption

• Fak Khaao (Momordica cochinchinensis 'Qua Gac fruit powder) naturally contains Oleic (Omega-9), Palmitic and Linoleic (Omega-6/essential fatty acid) Fatty Acids and, significant concentrations of Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) which work together to naturally enhance the body's uptake of the carotenoid compounds and other nutrients present in Fak khaao (Gac fruit powder).

• The coexistence of both high concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids and carotenoids in Fak Khaao (Momordica cochinchinensis 'Qua Gac fruit powder) aril serves to enhance the bioavailability of these carotenoids.

• Studies show that coingestion of lycopene with fat increases the intestinal uptake of both ß-Carotene and lycopene. Source: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2004)

• Fak Khaao (Momordica cochinchinensis 'Qua Gac fruit powder) naturally balanced nutritional composition optimizes the body's uptake of it's vital nutrients and offers significant advantages over extracted carotenoids. No longer must other compounds, processes and all the related costs be added to your product to allow integration and absorption of costly extracted carotenoids. Momordica Gac fruit p[oader provides a one-step complete solution to enrich and differentiate human supplemental needs with carotenoids.

Extracted Carotenoids

• Pure extracted carotenoids, such as Lycopene, are not readily absorbed by the body without adding other carriers, binders or other   ingredients to change the solubility or allow for absorption into the body. The addition of these other carriers or ingredients adds   complexity to formulations, processing and generally adds significant additional cost to the costly pure extracted carotenoids.

• The coexistence of both high concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids and carotenoids in Momordoca Gac fruit aril serves to enhance the   bioavailability of these carotenoids.

• Studies show that coingestion of lycopene with fat increases the intestinal uptake of both ß-Carotene and lycopene.
 Source: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2004)

The USDA extensively researched the composition of the fruit and confirmed:

1. The high concentrations of carotenoids, including Lycopene and ß-Carotene as compared with other fruits.

2. The presence of cis-lycopene isomers and cis-ß-Carotene isomers (evidence shows that the cis-isomers of Lycopene and ß-Carotene are more bioavailable, or readily absorbed, than the trans forms), and

3. The coexistence of both high concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids and carotenoids in the fruit aril serves to enhance the bioavailability of these carotenoids.

Momordica Fak Khaao [Gac] naturally contains Oleic (Omega-9), Palmitic and Linoleic (Omega-6/essential fatty acid) Fatty Acids and, significant concentrations of Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) which work together to naturally enhance the body's uptake of the carotenoid compounds and other nutrients present in Momordica Fak Khaao [Gac] fruit.

Momordica Fak Khaao [Gac]s naturally balanced nutritional composition optimizes the body's uptake of Qua Gac's vital nutrients and offers significant advantages over extracted carotenoids.

more about

Momordica Fak Khaao [Gac]
 


• Cultivating
• From planting to processing
• Properly cultivated and ethically harvested
• Formed by nature... delivered by Siam Industries Intenational
• 100% traceable source

Fak Khaao (Momordica cochinchinensis 'Qua Gac fruit) is a brilliant orange bumpy-skinned fruit that is approximately the size of a small cantelope. Comprised of a mesocarp and vibrant red arils inside the fruit, it is not surprising from the color that the fruit is an abundant source of carotenoids including Lycopene, ß-Carotene and Zeaxanthin and contains significant concentrations of Vitamin C. In fact, Fak Khaao (Gac fruit) is the richest, most potent source of Lycopene and ß-Carotene of any known fruit or vegetable in the world.

For centuries, the vibrant red arils have been used to treat eyes, skin, burns and wounds. And, ceremoniously the aril and seeds of the fruit are used in rituals.

The USDA extensively researched the composition of the fruit and confirmed:

1. The high concentrations of carotenoids, including Lycopene and ß-Carotene as compared with other fruits.

2. The presence of cis-lycopene isomers and cis-ß-Carotene isomers (evidence shows that the cis-isomers of Lycopene and ß-Carotene are     more bioavailable, or readily absorbed, than the trans forms), and

3. The coexistence of both high concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids and carotenoids in the fruit aril serves to enhance the     bioavailability of these carotenoids.


The USDA researchers concluded that the fruit is a valuable source of Lycopene and ß-Carotene, which are two antioxidants that have been shown to have protective antioxidant effects against the deleterious consequences of many major degenerative diseases.

The USDA researchers studies noted that the "carotenoid concentrations may vary depending on factors such as degrees of ripeness and conditions of culture". This variability and other factors, including commercial availability of the fruit, had limited use of this superfruit powerhouse until Momordica Fak Khaao [Gac] was further developed.

Water-soluble, stable Momordica Fak Khaao [Gac] powder has solved this problem with focused agricultural research and sustainable farming methods, which when coupled with proprietary harvesting processes have yielded consistently high standardized carotenoid concentrations, as certified by several industry leading labs worldwide.

Fak Khaao [Gac fruit] is the richest, most naturally bio-accessible carotenoid source in the world. It contains 240x the amount of Lycopene in tomatoes, 65x the ß-Carotene in carrots, 2x the Vitamin C in oranges and 40x the Zeaxanthin in corn. This nutrition powerhouse also contains Omega 6, Omega 9 fatty acids, and and Vitamin E (Alpha-Tocopherol), which optimizes the body's natural uptake of carotenoids.

Fak Khaao [Gac fruit] offers: self-affirmed GRAS status, 100% traceable source, certified growing process, standardized testing, certificate of analysis of carotenoid concentrations and proprietary processes to provide a stable, usable, readily available, commercial product in Carogac. Also available in water-soluble and taste neutral, 100% pure freeze dried fruit powder.

Fak Khaao [Gac fruit] can be used as a powerful nutritional ingredient for functional foods, beverages, personal care and dietary supplements, as well as a natural colorant.

The 100% pure dried powder retains the highest amount of active compounds, is stabilized without preservatives and is versatile and compatible with various processing environments. 100% pure frozen pulp is also available and ideally suited for beverage and select food product applications.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Composition

Fak Khaao (Momordica cochinchinensis Gac fruit) naturally contains all of the following carotenoid and vitamin nutrients. Unlike many extracted carotenoids that cannot be readily absorbed, Fak Khaao (Gac fruit) is balanced by nature to be bio-accessbile to the body. (fully absorbed)

Lycopenelycopene-tomatoes

. Momordica Fak Khaao [Gac] contains 240x more Lycopene than the amount in   tomatoes.

. Concentration in the fruit, according to the USDA, is 3,053 mg/g Fresh   Weight of arils.

. Fak Khaao [Gac fruit) is the richest source of Lycopene of any known fruit or vegetable in the world.

. Standardized concentrations of Lycopene in Fak Khaao (Momordica cochinchinensis Gac fruit) powder per HPLC average 0.73-1.0 mg/100mg.

. Fak Khaao [Gac fruit) powder contains 240x more Lycopene than the amount in tomatoes.

. Concentration in the fruit, according to the USDA, is 3,053 mg/g Fresh Weight of arils.

. Fak Khaao [Gac fruit) powder is the richest source of Lycopene of any known fruit or vegetable in the world.

. Standardized concentrations of Lycopene in Fak Khaao (Gac fruit) powder per HPLC average 0.73-1.0 mg/100mg.
lycopene-structure

. Fak Khaao (Momordica cochinchinensis 'Qua Gac fruit powder) provides more bioaccessible Lycopene and ß-Carotene than do tomatoes due to its chemical structure (cis vs  all trans isomers). As published in the March 2008 Journal of Nutrition, Tomatoes and tomato-based foods have mainly all-trans  lycopene, whereas blood and tissue lycopene is more than 50% cis-lycopene.
 Source: Journal of Nutrition March (2008)

. Studies on Lycopene's health benefits have shown that it can help support:

- Healthy and vibrant skin
- Cardiovascular health
- Prostate health
- Protection from free radicals

. The most powerful carotenoid quencher of singlet oxygen.
Source: Di Mascio, Institut fu"r Physiologische Chemie I, Universita"t Du"sseldorf Federal Republic of Germany (1989).

Fak Khaao 's (Gac fruit) value related to prostate health comes from its high lycopene content. Lycopene has been shown to be effective in preventing prostate cancer and in the treatment of BPH. Thus far no studies have examined the impact of Momordica cochinchinensis extracts on prostate cancer or BPH, but based on results of other research into the benefits of lycopene in these prostate problems, Fak Khaao (Gac fruit) could prove to be helpful.

Fak Khaao (Gac fruit) has demonstrated some anticancer properties against other cancers, however. in a study published in Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, scientists reported that a protein purified from Momordica cochinensis (gac fruit) seeds showed even stronger anti-tumor activity against human cervical epithelial, human embryonic kidney, and human small cell lung cancer cell lines. (Chuethong 2007) Another study found a water extract of (Fak Khaao (gac fruit oil) to be effective against colon cancer in mice. (Tien 2005)


Role of Lycopene in Prostate Health

Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M, Bowen PE.
Department of Human Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago,
1919 West Taylor St. Chicago, IL 60612, USA. msapuntz@uic.edu

Epidemiological evidence associating the decreased risk of prostate cancer with frequent consumption of tomato products inspired us to conduct a small intervention trial among patients diagnosed with prostate adenocarcinoma. Tomato sauce pasta was consumed daily for 3 weeks before their scheduled prostatectomy, and biomarkers of tomato intake, prostate cancer progression and oxidative DNA damage
were followed in blood and the available prostate tissue. The whole food intervention was so well accepted by the subjects that the blood lycopene (the primary carotenoid in tomatoes responsible for their red color) doubled and the prostate lycopene concentration tripled during this short period. Oxidative DNA damage in leukocytes and prostate tissues was significantly diminished, the latter mainly in the tumor cell nuclei, possibly due to the antioxidant properties of lycopene.


Quite surprising was the decrease in blood prostate-specific antigen, which was explained by the increase in apoptotic death of prostate cells, especially in carcinoma regions. Prostate cancer cell cultures (LNCaP) were also sensitive to lycopene in growth medium, which caused an increased apoptosis and arrested the cell cycle. A possible explanation of these promising results may reside in lycopene
effects on the genes governing the androgen stimulation of prostate growth, cytokines and on the enzymes producing reactive oxygen species, all of which were recently discovered by nutrigenomic techniques. Other phytochemicals in tomato may act in synergy with lycopene to potentiate protective effects and to help in the maintenance of prostate health.

PMID:
15949687
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15949687

ß-Carotenebetacarotene-carrot

. Momordica 'Qua Gac' contains 65x more ß-Carotene   than   the amount in carrots.

. Concentration in the fruit, according to the USDA, is   682.3 mg/g fresh weight (Fresh Weight of   arils).

. Studies on ß-Carotene's health benefits have shown   that   it can help support:

- Eye Health
- Bone Development
- Protection from free radicals

. Momordica 'Qua Gac' is the richest source of ß-Carotene of any   known fruit or vegetable in the   world.

. Standardized concentrations of ß-Carotene in LycoGac   Powder per HPLC average   0.544mg/100mg.

 betacarotene-structure 
. Vitamin A is necessary for both low light and color vision.

. ß-Carotene is a safe and abundant source of Provitamin A without toxicity. It's also a natural colorant for food and beverage applications.
Click here for information about Carotenoids and ß-Carotene Research.

ß-Carotene

. Concentration in the fruit, according to the USDA, is 107 mg/g fresh weight (Fresh Weight of arils).

. Studies on ß-Carotene's health benefits have shown that it can help support:

- Healthy and vibrant skin
- Cardiovascular health
- Protection from free radicals

. ß-Carotene is a stable natural colorant for food and beverage applications.

Click here for information about Carotenoids and ß-Carotene Research.

Vitamin C
vitaminc-oranges

. Momordica Fak Khaao [Gac] contains 2x more Vitamins C than the amount in oranges.

. Momordica Fak Khaao [Gac] is one of the richest sources of Vitamin C of any known fruit or vegetable in the world.

. Studies on Vitamin C's health benefits have shown that it can help support:

- Healthy and vibrant skin
- Overall health
- Protection from free radicals

Zeaxanthinzeaxanthin-corn

. Momordica Fak Khaao [Gac] fruit contains 40x more Zeaxanthin that the amount in corn.

. Momordica Fak Khaao [Gac] fruit is one of the richest sources of Zeaxanthin of any known fruit   or vegetable in the world.

. Zeaxanthin is found in the eye's retina and acts as a filter to certain harmful light   from the sun. Studies have shown that Zeaxanthin supports eye health.

. Zeaxanthin plays an essential role in protecting the retina of the eye from the   damaging effects of light. Source: Experimental Eye Research (2002)

. Momordica Fak Khaao [Gac] fruitcontains 40x more Zeaxanthin that the amount in corn.

. Momordica Fak Khaao [Gac] fruit is one of the richest sources of Zeaxanthin of any known fruit or vegetable in the world.

. Zeaxanthin is found in the eye's retina and acts as a filter to certain harmful light from the sun. Studies have shown that Zeaxanthin   supports eye health.

. Zeaxanthin plays an essential role in protecting the retina of the eye from the damaging effects of light. Source: Experimental Eye   Research (2002)

Here are the foods which are known to be high in zeaxanthin, listed in order from highest to least (>100mcg/100g serving), according to the Lutein and Zeaxanthin Scientific Review:

- Momordica Gac fruit powder...21,120 mcg
- Pepper, orange, raw...1,608 mcg
- Corn, sweet, yellow, canned...528 mcg
- Persimmons, Japanese, raw...488 mcg
- Corn, frozen, cooked...375 mcg
- Spinach, raw...331 mcg

ß-Tocopherol (Vitamin E)

. Concentration in the fruit, according to the USDA, is 8mg/100g (80 m/g Fresh Weight of arils).

. Standardized concentrations of Vitamin E in Fak Khaao [Gac] Powder per HPLC average 0.155 mg/100mg.

Momordica Gac fruit powder naturally balanced nutritional composition optimizes the body's uptake of the many vital nutrients it contains, offering significant advantages over extracted carotenoids.

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